The most relevant and disputed issue in the modern society are problems in the field of ecology. In the process of solving environmental problems the governments spent an enormous amount of money, but the ecological situation has not improved, while humanity is rapidly losing the ability to control natural phenomena.
For many years, mankind has been trying to implement different approaches to overcome the natural imbalance, although their success is far from obvious. World "green" movement emerged in the second half of the twentieth century, while society has finally realized the magnitude of the changes caused by industrialization. Their main activity was the fight against poaching, deforestation, discussions with regional authorities aimed at the protection of plants and animals. An important part of the "green" environmental education matters were schoolchildren, ecotourism, as well as environmental propaganda. Unfortunately, these efforts did not find universal support, while the environmental situation in the world is becoming increasingly problematic.
But the creation of "green" movements is not enough to solve ecological problems. A huge role in the fight against environmental degradation is played by ecological culture in each country, and around the world.
Definition of key terms
Ecology - is the scientific study of interactions among organisms and their environment, such as the interactions organisms have with each other and with their abiotic environment.
Ecological consciousness - the ability to understand the inseparable connection of the human community with nature, the dependence of the well-being of people of integrity and comparative immutability of the natural environment and to use this understanding in practice. Most widespread in the human’s community is often associated with certain environmental disasters, which force people to think about the consequences of their economic activity for the natural environment. Apparently, such events were the cause of conservation in the public consciousness determined by sociological (environmental) regulations.
Ecological cultures a sub-field of culture and is defined as the “study of cultural adaptations to environments. The sub-field is also defined as, "the study of relationships between a population of humans and their biophysical environment". The focus of its research concerns “how cultural beliefs and practices helped human populations adapt to their environments, and how people used elements of their culture to maintain their ecosystems.
At the end of XX century attention to the culture of interaction between man and nature has increased substantially; reason for this emphasis was primarily public rethinking the approach to culture as such and to the past achievements of mankind in particular. Inner potential of these achievements in terms of their possible reactivation in the form of maintaining or restoring the tradition was significantly overvalued, and these achievements were seen as something very valuable: as a tangible result of human self-realization, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, continues to act as creative factor of human development
History of the term "ecological culture" is rooted in the 20th century. When the level of the negative impact on the environment has reached such heights that humanity finally caught himself, thinking about how to live on. At the same time humanity understands their mindless consumption of "crown of Nature" - the level of environmental problems is rapidly growing, and monitoring reports begin to resemble stills-disaster. That's where the eyes of the public and the powers finally paid attention to the futile appeals scientist’s appeals to reduce the speed of machine production and began studying researches reports and forecasts.
Forming of ecological culture
Certainly, a major role in the formation of ecological culture is played by the family. After all, those ideologically grafted in childhood are the most stable in later life. Development of ecological culture and society is still very "profitable." So by increasing life expectancy, fewer diseases and pathologies will appear. We will improve moral and ethical performance. Also environmental management leads to savings and enhancement of natural resources.
Formation of ecological culture is based on the following principles:
a) the interests of not only the present but also of the future generations;
b) approach to solving problems of ecological culture as part of the environmental policy of the city;
c) regional perspective , including natural conditions and resources , the ecological situation, demographic situation, cultural, historical and religious traditions of the population, especially the system of settlement, educational level, quality of life, intellectual and spiritual potential of the population,
d) use the main provisions of the state policy in the field of environmental protection and guarantee environmental safety;
e) adherence to democratic norms and requirements, the priority of civil rights and freedoms;
f) relationship of educational and training activities with practice the environmental challenges;
g) cultivation of humanistic attitude to nature;
h) openness and accessibility of environmental information for the city's population;
i) involvement of employers, public and other non-profit organizations in the tasks of environmental culture;
j) use historical experience solving environmental education
For the development of socio-normative component we must develop at the local level more advanced regulatory framework enshrining the forms of civil participation in the processes of municipal management in the field of environmental problems at the local level.
Local authorities are recommended to delegate responsibility for the cleanliness and order around the houses directly to the city residents, invite them to choose responsible for the procedure on container platforms and provide regular waste removal.
For the development of the cognitive component necessary to make effort in the process of reforming the urban waste management and solution of environmental problems of the city, actively participate in the development of environmental awareness, environmental education and enlightenment of citizens, involving for this purpose the experts in the field of studying of ecological consciousness, ecology and environmental protection.
The cognitive component and regulatory function can be improved by promoting the use of reusable plastic bags used for purchases and obliging the organization, sphere of trade and services, offering its own branded plastic bags, to place the information about the possibility of their repeated use.