Issue: Devising and Implementing measures to control the world's population
One of the crucial issues of modern civilization is the issue of world’s overpopulation. For hundreds of thousands of years, the human population grew at a low but steadily increasing rate. But in less than last 200 years the world population went from several hundreds of millions to more than 7 billion people.
The Earth has certain limitations and in particular there are limits to growth of species that consume the Earth resources.
Many people believe that these resources are endless and population growth can continue and that there is no danger that we will ever run out of anything. Yet, many people had predicted catastrophic shortages of natural resources that would follow the population growth. Overpopulation is destroying our environment, lowering the standards of living and generally degrading the quality of life. Overpopulation also causes more violence, environmental pollution that reflects on land degradation, tropical forest destruction, global warming and destruction of coral reefs. The 7 billion member society has to get a huge food infrastructure, so it will have to start producing genetically produced food, which is cheaper than ordinary one but might reflect in the nutrient balance. So it is essential to achieve sustainability and population control.
Overpopulation- excessive population to the point of overcrowding, depletion of natural resources, or environmental deterioration.
Least Developed Countries (LDCs): less developed countries or developing countries are countries with low living standards, underdeveloped industries and a low Human Right Index in comparison with other countries. Many of these countries are located in Africa.
Immigration- the movement of non-native people into a country in order to settle there
UNFPA: The United Nations Population Fund promotes equality for all people. Its mission is to help governments by collecting information about different populations (think censuses), providing sexual reproductive healthcare to women and youths, and family planning.
Population Institute: The Population Institute educates policymakers and the public about population and promotes universal access to family planning, education, and services.
The Audubon Society: The Audubon Society aims at protecting the habitat of plants and animals, addressing the stressors that the population puts on these species.
Worldwatch Institute: The Worldwatch Institute provides information to decision-makers about environmental concerns by developing and disseminating data and strategies on topics such as climate change, resource degradation, population growth, and poverty.
Human overpopulation occurs if the number of people in a group exceeds the carrying capacity of the region occupied by the group. There are multiple consequences of overpopulation: the increase in birth rate, the development of the human society (medicine, life conditions, technologies, etc.). The death rate has declined over the course of the last century. The average age of life is growing on all continents.
population has been growing continuously since the end of plague, around
the year 1400, although the most significant increase has been in the last 50
years, mainly due to medical
advancements and increases in agricultural productivity. As of December 10,
2013 the world's human population is estimated to be over 7 billion by the United Nations and it is
estimated to peak 9 billion by 2040. The recent rapid increase in human population
over the past decades has raised concerns that the planet may not be able to
sustain present or larger numbers of inhabitants. Because of religious and
cultural traditions, rapid population growth is observed in sub-Saharan Africa
and South-East Asia.
At the moment the problem is getting worse and the human overpopulation is growing. Some countries solve the overpopulation problem in certain ways: birth control, the restriction of immigration from other States. But there is no international agreement on the issue.
UN confirms the risk of overpopulation in the nearest future. The reports note that by 2100 the world population will grow to 15 billion, while the maximum that can withstand the Earth - it's just 10 billion. If we do not get the situation under control right now, after 100 years, while situation gets out of hand and threatens the world to catastrophic consequences.
The consequences of overpopulation will effect: depletion of natural resources, environmental destruction and high demand for non-renewable resources, uncontrolled urbanization, migration, unemployment, famine, poverty and war. Expected increase in population will be most profound in developing countries due to the prevalence of poverty, poor education, low health standards, gender inequity and child labor.
Previous attempts to resolve the issue
The time is not standing still, neither in technological matters, nor in social matters. A new petition for a worldwide birth control has been launched on the 21.august. 2013 .That petition is destined to the United Nations and the United Nations foundation, as well as to the German government. Different NGOs have introduced different programs to address the issue of overpopulation. Several UN population and development conferences were held during the 20th century:
1954 - The Club of Rome
1960 - USAID family planning services in the developing countries increases contraceptive prevalence from 14% in 1965 to 57% today. "Population control" sometimes used.
1974 - Bucharest UN World Population Conference. Industrial countries wanted to control population growth, while developing nations said that "development is the best contraceptive."
1984 - Mexico City U.N. Conference on Population became enmeshed in U.S. debates over abortion and contraception.
1994 - Cairo International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD)- characterized by an extraordinary degree of international cooperation and consensus, by improving health, education, and access to opportunity.
UN is carefully studying the issue, publishing annual reports on the problem of world population and demographics. These reports prepared by UNFPA (United Nations Population Fund) which includes 179 countries since 1994.
The issue of overpopulation can be seen impossible to solve,
apart from the radical politics of some countries. Recognized and agreed
methods to combat overpopulation do not currently exist. UN welcomes the
voluntary decision of some countries to limit population growth. Their example
and experience can serve as a platform for the development of international
standards in matters of demography. However in global cooperation we are able
to overcome this poser.
There are several mitigation measures that have been or can be applied to reduce the adverse impacts of overpopulation. All of these mitigations are ways to implement social norms. At the same time, it is necessary to consider international cooperation in matters of immigration of people from densely populated countries in the country with a low population density, as well. Overpopulation is related to the issue of birth control; some nations, like the People's Republic of China, use strict measures to reduce birth rates. Nevertheless UN doesn’t support such measures. One option is to focus on education about overpopulation, family planning, and birth control methods, and to make birth-control devices like male/female condoms, pills and intrauterine devices easily available. Despite the increase in population density within cities (and the emergence of megacities), UN Habitat states in its reports that urbanization may be the best compromise in the face of global population growth. Cities concentrate human activity within limited areas, limiting the breadth of environmental damage.