World community began arguing about the future of nuclear power after the accident at the Japanese nuclear power plant "Fukushima" in March 2011. Events activate opponents of nuclear energy worldwide. In some countries, plans for nuclear energy have been recieved. Many projects have been frozen NPP construction.
Nuclear Energy to the Chernobyl disaster was considered a reliable and promising direction of energy development. Since 1970, it has developed more intensively and reached its peak in the period 1980-1985. Total power of the then NPP in the world reached 117 MW and in subsequent years it was possible to expect the same rate of development. However, the Chernobyl disaster has crossed these plans, and after 1986, the nuclear industry began to decline. At the turn of the 1990s, the number of closed reactors exceeded the number of commissioned. In many countries a serious discussion about the economic and environmental problems of nuclear energy. Began to exceed more insistent discussions on environmental safety of nuclear energy and the problem of radioactive waste (RW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF), were conducted during the NPP.
Some countries, such as Sweden, Italy, Austria, radically revised their policy towards of Soviet-design nuclear power, Germany began to take off with the operation of power units built in the eastern states. Currently no country in Western Europe, except France, not the construction of new reactors.
The world's active nuclear power plants operate in North America and Europe. Most of them will be closed by 2030, and only a few of them would be replaced. Almost none of these countries plan to rely on the power of nuclear energy in the next decade.
The fundamental dilemma of nuclear energy is that there is no environmentally safe and completely controlled nuclear technology, and nuclear power, is incomparable for its low cost. But at the same time it can’t be absolutely safe. Essentially, nuclear energy is cheap only as long as the environmental safety of society and its environment are not considered. People resigned to the fact that the current energy policy is fraught with radioactive disaster for the next generations.
UN supports a large number of resolutions on the subject. The first one was in 1946. Last in 2013. UN continues to change their decision about this issue. One of the most serious and persistent problems of nuclear power is what to do with radioactive waste. One more problem is in that one of the by-products of most nuclear reactors is plutonium-239, which can be used in nuclear weapons. Nuclear installations could also become targets for terrorist attacks. Another problem is that nuclear energy should be publicly available for all countries.
To solve the problem, humanity must pay more attention to safety, security when creating NPP to reach the safe use of the atom for peaceful purposes. You also need to create all the conditions for accessibility to nuclear power as to the cheapest energy. It requires awareness of the risks and problems in countries where it does not exist.